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X Louis Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedmen: Federal Policy Toward Southern Blacks, (New York, 1979)

Joseph Glatthaar, Forged in Battle (New York: Free Press, 1990)

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Charles E. Hamlin, The Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin, (Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1971, first published 1899)

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Harold Holzer, editor, The Lincoln Douglas Debates, (New York: Harper Collins, 1993).

Harold Holzer, Lincoln Seen and Heard, (Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2000)

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Harry V. Jaffa, A New Birth of Freedom, (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2000)

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David E. Long, The Jewel of Liberty: Abraham’s Re-election and the End of Slavery, (New York: Da Capo Press, 1997

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Peyton McCrary, Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction, (Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction: The Louisiana Experiment, 1978)

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William S. McFeely, Grant: A Biography, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1981)

James M. McPherson, Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).

James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988)

James M. McPherson, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)

James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades, Why Men Fought in the Civil War, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997)

James M. McPherson, Marching Toward Freedom: Blacks in the Civil War, 1861-1865 (New York: Facts on File, 1965)

James M. McPherson, The Negro’s Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted during the War for the Union, (New York: Ballantine Books, 1991)

James M. McPherson, Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction, (New York: Knopf, 1982)

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Allen Nevins, The War for the Union: The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1971)

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Allen Nevins, Ordeal of the Union: A House Dividing, 1852-1857, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1959)

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James Brewer Stewart, Joshua R. Giddings and the Tactics of Radical Politics, (Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1970)

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William Frank Zornow, Lincoln & The Party Divided (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954).